HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 10:04:58 GMT 男女啪啪软件

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

n. 污染,污染物

Show MoreHide

2010年的头号热门搜索问题是“如何打领带”,其次是“如何减肥”、“如何接吻”以及“如何写简历”。
Still, experts see a crisis of white identity underlying much of the West’s current turmoil.
2.德语:增长了22.2%

《佛罗里达乐园》
[in'spai?ri?]
Dachis says: The news just keeps getting worse for Mitsubishi. Low sales triggered a decision to pull out of the European market and if the levels of negative discussion are any indicator, 2013 doesn’t look to be any better.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

广州户籍家庭公租房实行“三调整一完善”

'In the next 12 to 24 months, unless any of these bottlenecks are solved, we could see WTI going down to $50 a barrel, to incentivize producers to slow down,' she said
圣安东尼奥-委内瑞拉塔奇拉州(美联社)--周末,超过100000名委内瑞拉人到哥伦比亚寻找国内短缺的食物和药品,他们中有些人连夜驱车跟着商队前去。
这个节目围绕宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡(Pittsburgh)的Abby Lee舞蹈学校里面的小孩子展开。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

adj. 粗糙的,粗略的,粗暴的,艰难的,讨厌的,不适的
Concerns about China’s economy have recently dragged down global financial markets, affecting prospects for the eurozone and many others. Such worries are one reason why the European Central Bank is expected on Thursday to unleash a new round of economic stimulus.
In a rigorous analysis of Dutch financial records, Koudijs and Voth conclude that the only real difference between the pessimists and the optimists was whether they had gone through a harrowing personal experience. Koudijs compares it to the behavior of people who lived through the Great Depression, and who avoided financial risk for decades after trauma had passed.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • modest
  • 生死存亡还是负利血拼? 大咖谈LED照明市场战况
  • 当时,Spielman正在耶路撒冷Emek Tzurim国家公园橄榄山的斜坡上检查泥土。突然就注意到了这个小小的矩形物件。
  • 各地出台全装修政策 家具企业迎来发展新契机
  • 国内钢价触及近4年高位 中国钢材7月出口同比锐减93%
  • 7. WordPress CMS
    vt. 避免,逃避

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 低碳经济成新竞争力 门窗企业需重视环保, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

楼市降温进入“新常态”隐性风险或逐步显现

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

云南政协委员建议用水泥窑协同处理固废

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • On the sales front, General Motors and Ford F -0.13% lost market share to Chrysler, which leveraged its Jeep brand to previously unimagined heights – and then, metaphorically left its heritage behind when it established legal domicile in the Netherlands and changed its name to FCA US LLC.
    1. Apple. Brand love: 57% / Rank: 32
  • “在古代,库车的名字在中国文学中叫做龟兹,是建立在西域绿洲上的一个非常强大的城邦,研究人员写到。
    Mr. Wang, the WeChat user in Beijing, said he was an avid QQ user 11 years ago but stopped using the instant messaging service because 'it didn't look very professional.' But after downloading WeChat on his smartphone he found 'most of my colleagues and friends are on it, and everyone communicates through voicemails now.'
    “考虑到8月贬值行动引发负面反应,我们认为近期不会出台进一步的贬值,”常驻香港的牛津经济研究院经济学家高路易(Louis Kuijs)表示。“我们认为10月的贸易数据将继续(使政府)面临压力,要求其在国内出台更多宽松政策。”
    Work that requires German language skills also grew significantly during the third quarter of 2016. Those who wish to work as German translators might be in luck these days.
    channel

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 国家统计局:2019年3月份CPI、PPI运行总体平稳
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 王伟:“双品牌”战略是红星美凯龙的发展重心

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

目前我在创业领域中所关注的大趋势之一是“接触或获得的权利”。创新者们正在将曾经昂贵的、耗时的,或是不可能获得或效率极低的产品带给消费者。无论是学习新技能、激发新兴趣,亦或是叩开此前成本高昂的市场,创业家们正在寻找全新的方式来将独一无二且术业专攻的产品带向更为主流的市场。我们开始看到合作消费商业模式中出现了这个趋势,而我预测,我们将在未来几年看到“基于接触或获得的权利”商业模式的潮涌。
4、慧眼识香。邦德眼光敏锐,能辨认出孰敌孰友。这种品质常见于性开放者。007很容易识出对他有意的女人,有科学证明,帅哥往往擅长于此。
"We have a system here in America where if something is for you and if they find it, it gets to you, that's beautiful," he told US TV station WTAE.
Now a white-haired grandfather, Belmonte has never regretted missing the 1950 match, particularly since his mother died just a few days later. "I decided not to go, and it was a good decision," he told the reporters.
2Canada
追踪中国服务业增长的财新PMI指数将于下周二发布。
adj. 具有双重性的,[生物]两栖的

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 然而,时间较长似乎并不代表学业较轻松。要保持学习劲头,合理的时间管理至关重要。英国华威商学院的一名毕业生谈到:“几个必修项目会帮助你跟上进度并避免在最后阶段非常紧张。”总的来说,2012级毕业生花了两年半多一点的时间完成学业。
  • 个人所得税法修正案草案本月底将迎来二审
  • 1983年的夏天,早熟的17岁少年埃利奥与家人一同在意大利北部伦巴第的17世纪乡间别墅度假。他邂逅了英俊的博士生奥利弗,后者是埃利奥父亲的实习生。那个夏天,一切都沉醉在灿烂阳光中,埃利奥和奥利弗彼此探索着欲望觉醒带来的令人晕眩的美。这个夏天将改变他们的一生。
    '安全提示问题'并不安全
  • 家居消费频现“私单”骗局
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策。
    ? Aid workers are worried about a food crisis in Haiti, where Hurricane Sandy killed 52 people last week. The UN is also concerned that flooding could lead to a sharp rise in cholera cases. At least 69 people were killed by Sandy in the Caribbean.
  • The IOM says fewer than 35,000 migrants, or about three percent, have crossed by land into Greece and Bulgaria from Turkey.
    据信,宝能借入了大笔资金来购买万科的股票。现在,它已是万科最大的股东,持股比例为25%。
  • 10.你真的很明显,好吧?
    公司:The Grommet公司
  • 来自荷兰的Anita Eerland和Rolf Zwaan,以及来自秘鲁的Tulio Guadalupe被授予心理学奖,其研究题目是《向左倚靠会让埃菲尔铁塔看上去更小一些》。
    这是007系列电影最佳主题曲之一,但实际上并没有在片头演奏,所以我们把它放在荣誉推荐的第一位。这首浪漫的曲子呼应了电影情节的发展,最终詹姆斯·邦德遇到了真爱。(可惜他们的恋情维持不久便结束了。)路易斯·阿姆斯特朗运用了他标志性的颤音,听者心弦颤动,一个经典诞生了。
    不要误以为最后时刻的风平浪静就意味着截止期限前的动作是平淡无奇的:
  • 该学校校友的总体满意度为95%,比伦敦商学院(London Business School)和德国WHU奥拓贝森管理研究院(WHU Beisheim)高出两个百分点。
    需要注意的是,票房总收入和个人收入是两个不同的概念。在2012年6月到2013年6月期间(这是我们编制最新全球100名人榜所采用的时间段),唐尼的估计个人收入为7,500万美元,比强森多挣2,900万美元。而本文所讨论的数字是每位明星出演的电影在今年斩获的全球票房。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 房源较少 选房困难 配套不足 人才公寓三大痛点如何解决? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

国研中心主任李伟:房地产呈现“冲高回落”苗头

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

竞争之中也有合作 地板品牌增值的新思维

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

涂料行业基本实现稳中有进 企业之间分化加剧

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京打击“黑中介”23家违规中介机构被查处

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The commerce ministry data showing plummeting real estate investment follows an overall 53 per cent rise last year to a record $33bn, according to separate data from JLL, a global realtor.
  • Agents and investment institutions are now flooding the sector, causing additional changes to content and platforms in the world's second-largest economy, the report said. A number of Internet gurus, including Lei Jun, investor and founder of tech firm Xiaomi, Zhou Hongyi, CEO of Qihoo 360 Technology, and China's richest man Wang Jianlin have all directly supported live video-streaming websites, a strong indication of the growing interest from capital investment.
  • 走向住居美好时代:2018博鳌21世纪房地产论坛聚焦万亿长租市场0

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Developer: Supermassive Games, Sony Computer Entertainment
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 今年最引人注目的化妆和发型设计几乎都源自角色的原型本身(其中有些无疑比银幕上的造型更有活力)。除了能让观众一眼看出角色的外貌特征,它们也能为演员的表演赋予整体感觉和微妙之感。有时,一个大鼻子就能加深观众的理解。
    厌倦了一成不变的生活?何不去探险,让身心重新焕发活力?毫无疑问,南极洲会是个好去处。亲眼目睹企鹅嬉戏,成群结队的海鸟飞过天空,要比观看电视纪录片更令人兴奋。想象一下,置身于雄伟冰山和原生态山脉构成的世界中,是多么刺激和美好的一件事啊!但要注意的是,南极洲地处极地,因此行前要做好充足准备。保暖靴、防寒外套、手套、羊毛袜和帽子一样都不能少。
    在美国,纽约州、加利福尼亚州和得克萨斯州获得最多投资。中国企业在头号投资目的地纽约投资54亿美元,其中大部分投入三笔大规模金融服务和房地产交易。
  • 节目38 歌曲《Super Shero》,S.H.E

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 全食CEO约翰麦基的《自觉资本主义》(Conscious Capitalism)一书让公司高管们不得不思考这样一个观点,那就是处于最佳运转状态的企业能为所有利益相关方创造价值,而不仅仅是投资者。麦基认为,主要利益相关方包括顾客、员工、供应商、社会以及环境。他以好市多、西南航空(Southwest Airlines ,《财富》500强)和谷歌(Google,《财富》500强)为例,说明思维超越利润能够打造更强大而、更高效的公司。
  • 深交所:密切关注“新三高”现象 防范化解高杠杆风险
  • We will strengthen our capability for making technological innovations.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 瓷砖未来大势先知 一线品牌退一步粉身碎骨
  • Household substance abuse
  • 鞍山样本:三线城市楼市去库存调查
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

雄安新区第一阶段地质调查工作告捷

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 土地市场持续升温 楼市暗藏调整风险
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 杭州租房市场调查:租金有无暴涨 公寓跑路咋办
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

"这是波多黎各的历史时刻",50岁的何塞·达维拉,他从力挺罗塞略的政党上挥舞大旗一边说着。"总督是我们岛上的希望,也是受苦的人民的希望"。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

4.Venice, Italy
戈尔迪·霍恩(Goldie Hawn)曾因影片《仙人掌花》(Cactus Flower)获最佳女配角奖,她的奖杯坐落在一个非常富有禅宗气息的地方——她的“印度房间”,她常在这里冥想。她的小金人并不是唯一一个和主人有共鸣的奖杯,罗素-克洛(Russell Crowe)曾在影片《角斗士》(Gladiator)中身着罗马战士裙装,扮演了一个威猛、极具感情和个性的古罗马战士--司令官马克西姆斯,他的奖杯放在鸡舍中,因为克洛相信小金人能够保佑母鸡下出更大的鸡蛋。
The Lost Tomb
China's box office sales hit a record high in 2015, by pulling in 44 billion yuan, or some 6.8 billion US dollars, with domestic films accounting for a large chunk of that growth.
世界知识产权组织总干事弗朗西斯·居里表示:“投资创新是提高长期经济增长的关键。在当前的经济形势下,发现新的增长来源并利用全球创新所带来的机会是所有利益相关者的优先事项。”
“We weren’t looking to throw the bums out, as they might say about an election. We were just really impressed with a flood of new powertrains, ” says Drew Winter, WardsAuto World Editor-in-Chief. “What was great yesterday might be less impressive tomorrow because engine technology is changing so rapidly.”
根据人社部的一份报告显示,雇主们在第一季度通过公共就业服务机构共招募了520万名职工,这一数字同比去年减少了229000人,也就是下降了百分之4.5。
支持:美国国家评论协会将最佳电影、最佳男主角和最佳女主角奖颁给了这部电影。
This ranking measures the quality and breadth of the schools’ postgraduate programmes. It is based on their performance in the four main rankings published by the FT each year: MBA, Executive MBA, Masters in Management and Executive Education. Only schools that take part in all four rankings are eligible for a full score.
The study relied on a dataset of hundreds of millions of secret answers and millions of account recovery requests.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

深圳开展“楼霸”专项整治行动

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 不过邱佩特并不只是一只宠物猫,它只参与了两个广告的拍摄就在一年里独自挣得了230多万英镑,其中一个是为日本美容产品植村秀拍摄的,另一个则是为德国汽车公司沃克斯豪尔拍摄的。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 他拿出教材,开始做起了家庭作业。
  • 广州住房公积金提取新规:可提取公积金在毗邻城市购置首套住房
  • 伦敦时装协会的新闻得到了社交媒体人士的支持,他们鼓励设计师放弃使用动物皮草。
  • 陶瓷行业电商路任重道远 摸索中前行
  • Trailing China in 2015 was the UK with $1.9 billion, Japan, $1.8 billion, India, $1.6 billion, and South Korea, $1.5 billion.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 9月全国规模以上建材家居卖场销售1086.2亿
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 1. Buy expensive tailored clothing that only sort of fits so that most of the time your buttons appear to be just seconds from bursting.
  • 鉴于计算机编程被冠以“美国经济中尚未开垦的处女地”称号,纽约编程及设计学院正在努力让“谈论”代码变得更简单。到2020年,美国市场上将会有150万个计算机科学相关岗位,而计算机科学专业毕业生则仅有40万人。此外,计算机科学相关岗位在全美的平均增长率是其他职位的两倍。但是如果你并没有计算机科学专业学位,也没有计划重返校园又该如何呢?纽约编程及设计学院通过提供夜校课程和密集型研讨会的方式正在令学习网络设计和开发变得简单——从该项目毕业后,创建一家全新的网站,或是着手寻找技术相关的职位,并不是什么稀罕的事情。正如创始人杰瑞米?司乃帕(Jeremy Snepar)所言,在当下的数字化经济中,你不能不懂得怎样编程。他将编程看做是一种技术能力,一种能够也应该以更为简单的方式学习的能力,而纽约编程及设计学院正是为那些曾经感慨过“如果我懂怎样编程就好了”的人填补了一个重要的空白。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

广州:5月10日至12日公租房样板房开放

View All Footnotes